ISS - Space Shuttle - Vocabulary

Integral - –adjective
1. pertaining to, or belonging as a part of the whole; a component: integral parts.
2. necessary to the completeness of the whole: This point is integral to his plan.
3. entire; complete; whole: the integral works of a writer.

Spacefaring – noun or adjective
1. noun = The launching of vehicles into outer space.
2. adjective = Engaged in the launching of vehicles into outer space: Example ="efforts in planetary exploration are achieved in cooperation with other spacefaring nations".

Manned / unmanned – verb or adjective
1. to furnish with men, as for service or defense, - as opposed to using animals.
2. the human individual as representing the human race, without reference to sex.

Shuttle – noun or verb
1. a public conveyance, as a train, airplane, or bus, that travels back and forth at regular intervals over a particular route
2. especially a short route, or one connecting two transportation systems.
3. verb = to move to and fro: constantly shuttling between city and suburb.
4. any of several U.S. space vehicles consisting of a reusable manned orbiter that touches down on a landing strip after an orbital mission. It has two reusable solid rocket boosters that drop off after initial ascent, and an expendable external tank containing liquid propellants.
5. noun = a reusable US spacecraft with wings for controlled descent in the atmosphere.
6. designed to transport astronauts between Earth and an orbiting space station and also used to deploy and retrieve satellites.

Spacecraft – noun
1. a vehicle designed for travel or operation in space beyond the earth's atmosphere, or in orbit around the earth.
2. vehicle intended to be launched into space. Also called spaceship.
3. a vehicle etc, manned or unmanned, for travelling in space

Venture – verb “venture out”
1. to take the risk of; brave the dangers of: to venture a voyage into space.
2. an undertaking involving uncertainty as to the outcome, dangerous voyage out into space, away from Earth

Ratified - past tense of “ratify” – verb
1. to confirm by expressing consent, approval, or formal agreement: to ratify a constitutional amendment.
2. formally approved, and given legal authority

Overwhelming – adjective
1. so great as to make resistance or opposition useless: an overwhelming majority.
2. overpowering in effect or strength: overwhelming joy.

Bipartisan – adjective
1. consisting of, or supported by members of two parties, especially two major political parties: a bipartisan resolution.
2. representing, and including members from two parties -Example ="Government leaders hope to achieve a bipartisan foreign policy."

Hardware – noun   -  “hardware / software”
1. the mechanical equipment needed for conducting an activity
2. military weapons or equipment, machines, - usually metal or plastic
3. often compared against “software” (software = the theory and design, or program that makes the activity possible)

Software - noun
1. program to enable an activity on computer, collection of computer programs, procedures and documentation that perform tasks
2. system software such as operating systems, which interface with hardware to provide the necessary services for application software

Planetary surface – a planet’s crust
1. pertaining to, or resembling a planet, ( one of the planets in the Solar System )
2. terrestrial; global, the land and rocks, dirt.
3. relating to, or resembling the physical characteristics of a planet.

Frigid – adjective
1. icy or very cold in temperature: a frigid climate.

Cosmos – noun
1. universe regarded as an orderly, harmonious system.
2. harmonic in order, as distinct from chaos.
3. originally meaning "the stars and firmament” of heavens and the sky

Undertaken – past tense of “undertake” – verb
1. to take upon oneself, as a task, or an attempt at something
2. decide or agree to do: undertake a task

This Glossary compiled from <> February 2007; and
<> February 2007, updated March 2009